Caraíba Operations

  • The Caraíba Operations (formerly known as the MCSA Mining Complex) are located in northeastern Bahia State, Brazil, approximately 385 kilometers north-northwest of the capital city of Salvador. The operations consist of fully integrated mining operations and processing facilities, including the Pilar and Vermelhos underground mines and the Surubim open pit mine. Ore is processed using conventional crushing and flotation at the Caraíba Mill, located adjacent to the Pilar underground mine. A high-grade, clean concentrate grading approximately 32 to 35% copper is shipped and sold to international markets via the Port of Salvador.

    The high-grade mafic-ultramafic mineral occurrences contained within the Caraíba Operations extend over 100 kilometers in strike length. Near mine and regional exploration activities are concentrated in three under-explored mineral districts: the Pilar District, located in the south, the centrally located Surubim District and the northern Vermelhos District. Combined, these districts provide excellent exploration potential over approximately 185,000 hectares controlled by Ero Copper.



    Primary Commodity:


    Mine Types:

    Underground and Open Pit

    2023 Production:

    43,857 tonnes of copper in concentrate

    2023 C1 Cash Costs

    $1.80 per pound of copper produced

    2024 Production Guidance:

    42,000 - 47,000 tonnes of copper in concentrate

    2024 C1 Cash Costs Guidance:

    $1.80 - $2.00 per pound of copper produced
  • ClassificationTonnage
    (000 tonnes)
    Contained Copper
    (000 tonnes)
    Mineral Reserves, Underground   
    Proven & Probable34,9081.36%475
    Mineral Resources, Underground (including Reserves)  
    Measured & Indicated92,4351.15%1,062
    Mineral Reserves, Open Pit   
    Proven & Probable42,4870.54%229
    Mineral Resources, Open Pit (including Reserves)  
    Measured & Indicated60,0020.55%331
    Total Reserves, Caraíba Operations   
    Proven & Probable77,3940.91%704
    Total Resources, Caraíba Operations      
    Measured & Indicated152,4360.91%1,393

    Mineral Reserve & Resource Notes:

    1. Please refer to the Annual Information Form dated March 7, 2024 for additional scientific and technical information, available on this website and on SEDAR ( and EDGAR (
    2. Mineral reserve and mineral resource estimates are effective as at December 31, 2023.
    3. Presented mineral resources inclusive of mineral reserves. All figures have been rounded to the relative accuracy of the estimates. Summed amounts may not add due to rounding.
    4. Mineral Reserve estimates were prepared in accordance with the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (“CIM”) Definition Standards for Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves, adopted by the CIM Council on May 10, 2014 and the CIM Estimation for Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves Best Practice Guidelines, adopted by CIM Council on November 29, 2019, using geostatistical and/or classical methods, plus economic and mining parameters appropriate for the deposit. Mineral reserves are based on a long-term copper price of US$3.30 per pound (“lb”), and a USD:BRL foreign exchange rate of 5.29. Mineral reserves are the economic portion of the Measured and Indicated mineral resources. Mining dilution and recovery factors vary for specific mineral reserve sources and are influenced by factors such as deposit type, deposit shape, stope orientation, and selected mining methods. In the mine design of the Pilar and Vermelhos underground mines, certain stopes include measured and indicated as well as inferred resource blocks. In these instances, inferred resource blocks within the defined mining shape were assigned zero grade. In 2023, inferred blocks assigned zero grade totaled approximately 207,000 tonnes for the Deepening Extension Zone, 350,000 tonnes for the Pilar Underground Mine, and approximately 30,000 tonnes for the Vermelhos Underground Mine. Development occurring within marginal ore, above the operational cut-off grade, has also been included in the mineral reserve estimate. Dilution occurring from measured and indicated resource blocks was assigned a grade based on the mineral resource grade of the blocks included in the dilution envelope.
    5. Mineral resources have been constrained within developed 3D grade-shells and lithology models applying a 0.45% and 0.20% copper grade envelope for high and marginal grade, respectively. Within these envelopes, mineral resources for underground deposits were constrained to those volumes ensuring Reasonable Prospects for Eventual Economic Extraction (“RPEEE”) after application of a 0.51% copper cut-off grade, as well as a 0.32% copper marginal cut-off grade. For open pit deposits a cut-off grade of 0.16% copper was applied. The low-grade envelope using a cut-off grade of 0.20% copper for underground deposits was used to develop a dilution envelope and development block model to better define the grade of blocks within the dilution envelope in the planning and design of underground stopes and planned development within the mineral reserve estimates and life-of-mine production plan.
    6. In the mine design of the Pilar and Vermelhos underground mines, certain stopes include measured and indicated as well as Inferred Mineral Resource blocks. In these instances, Inferred Mineral Resource blocks within the defined mining shape were assigned zero grade. Development occurring within marginal ore, above the operational cut-off grade, has also been included in the Mineral Reserve estimate.

    Mineral resources which are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability.

  • December 22, 2022
    2022 Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves of the Caraíba Operations, Curaçá Valley, Bahia, Brazil

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